Coal Mining in Las Minas

Coal Mining in Las Minas, Santo Tomas Coal Field, 1880s to 1930s

October 19, 2013

By Alex Martinez

I. Context

The Santo Tomas Coal Field yielded cannel coal of superior quality during a time that spanned more than five decades. The Coal mining in Las Minas is considered historic because the mining activity and the communities it created played key roles in economic growth, politics and cultural influences in Webb County, other parts of Texas and northern Mexico.

Minera (Carbon), Darwin (Cannel), Dolores (San Jose), and Santo Tomas were communities that rose and fell with the Santo Tomas Coal Field mining operations. This assembly of mining communities was collectively known as Las Minas.

The cannel coal production in Las Minas ushered the industrial era into Webb County, supported prolific industrialization of northern Mexico, facilitated the railroad expansion and operations into Laredo and beyond, was a crossroads for the armament of some of the Mexican rebels instigating the end of the Mexican reign of Porfirio Diaz (Sept. 15, 1830 – July 2, 1915), and helped meet the energy needs of the United States during World War I.

The coal field and its communities also attracted out-of-state entrepreneurs, mining engineers, mine and railroad developers, mining technology, and Mexican labor. This migration and immigration dynamic contributed to the cultural diversification, education, labor organization, and political participation of the northwest region of Webb County. Page 2 of 17

II. Overview

The formal genesis of coal mining for this historic period of the Santo Tomas Coal Field in Las Minas was on May 25, 1881 when Charles M. Macdonnell and Teresa Pisaña de Benavides (lessors) of Laredo entered into an agreement with Alexander C. Hunt Sr. (lessee) (Dec. 23, 1825 – May, 1894), trustee, for the right to mine coal or other minerals on a tract of land known as Santo Tomas Ranch that fronted the Rio Grande between El Arroyo Santo Tomas (Santo Tomas Creek) and El Arroyo de la Llave (Llave Creek) with a depth of six leagues. The lessors retained the right to use the land for grazing and farming. The term of the agreement was for 50 years. Charles M. Macdonnell and Teresa Pisaña de Benavides were entitled to one-third of the net profits of the mining operations. Charles M. Macdonnell was to get three-fifths of the one-third and Teresa Pisaña de Benavides two-fifths of the one-third of net profits. One-fourth of the one-third was to go towards payment of one-third of capital invested in the mining enterprise. The remaining three-fourths was to go as dividends and gains to Charles M. Macdonnell and Teresa Pisaña de Benavides. But, The Mexican National Construction Company invested in Alexander C. Hunt Sr.’s operation and its investment was to be paid back before any profits could be accrued from the mining operations.1

Another small drift mine, the Hunt mine, was opened in 1887 south of Santo Tomas Creek located outside of the Alexander C. Hunt Sr. lease area previously described. The Hunt mine was owned by the Carr Brothers.2

Alexander C. Hunt Sr. gave the Santo Tomas (at Minera) mine his full attention from 1881 to 1884. Between 1881 and 1884, the mines were operated by the Mexican National Railroad Company and then by the Rio Grande and Pecos Railway Company built and owned by Alexander C. Hunt Sr.. In 1884 the Rio Grande and Pecos Railway Company defaulted and was taken over by a receiver (later operated as Page 3 of 17

The Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway). The mines were also taken over by the lessors. Alexander C. Hunt Sr. recovered the mines by lawsuit in 1891 and also formed the Santo Tomas Coal Company in 1891.3

The Santo Tomas Coal Company was composed of Alexander C. Hunt Sr., Alexander C. Hunt Jr., Asa H. Stearns (daughter of Alexander C. Hunt Sr.), A.W. Wilcox, and the Mexican Coal, Timber, and Iron Company.4

After ten years of allegedly continual losses for Alexander C. Hunt Sr.’s mining enterprise at Minera, on April 1, 1892 Alexander C. Hunt Sr. relinquished the 1881 lease and the mining enterprise. The land owners took possession of the implements Alexander C. Hunt Sr. had placed on the property and on October 4, 1892 they executed a 20-year lease with William Anderson for mining privileges. William Anderson formed the Minera Colliery Company. A series of convoluted transactions ensued. The Minera Colliery Company executed a deed of trust on the mining lease to M.T. Cogley who was foreclosed and R.P. Walker purchased the lease at foreclosure sale. R. P. Walker created the Santo Tomas Coal Company but then conveyed the lease to Thomas Carmicheal. Meanwhile, William Anderson negotiated with the property owners for purchase of the same. William Anderson then incorporated as the Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company. The Rio Grande and Irrigation Company issued bonds and conveyed the land in trust to the New York Security and Trust Company. On December 1, 1896, Daniel Milmo and Albert Urbahn also purchased an undivided three-fourths interest in the mining property from the administrator of the Charles M. Macdonnell Estate (A.B. Frank). Charles M. Macdonnell had passed away September 23, 1888.5 Page 4 of 17

By May 11, 1891, Minera had a Post Office and by August 28, 1896, Darwin (Cannel) also had a Post Office. Cannel’s name was changed to Darwin when it was discovered that there was another Post Office named Cannel somewhere else.6

In 1896 the Coal Trade Journal was the only newspaper in the United States entirely devoted to the coal trade.7 In its March 25, 1896 issue it described the mines at Minera, Texas as the Santo Tomas Mines. The first railroad was built into Laredo in 1881, and by 1896 four railroads had reached the city. Those were 1.) The International & Great Northern of the Gould system, 2.) The Texas-Mexican from Corpus Christi, 3.) The Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway that ran to the coal mines at Minera, known as the Santo Tomas mines, and 4.) The Mexican National Railway to Mexico City. Laredo was the distribution point of the celebrated Santo Tomas Cannel Coal. The location of the mines was about 28 miles upriver from Laredo at the end of the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway. The coal field covered 50,000 acres and was owned and operated by the Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company (having capital of $1,000,000). The Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company intended to irrigate their land on a large scale (60,000,000 gallons per day of water) as soon as their coal production reached approximately 2,000 tons per day (steam pumps was the technology used for pumping water). The coal was excellent locomotive and steam fuel and had no equal west of the Mississippi for grates and domestic purposes. The coal could be handled with white gloves and would not stain them; was free of sulfur and water in combination, burned with a long and bright flame and gave off great heat. The Santo Tomas Cannel Coal burned clean to an ash with no clinker. The Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company offered a premium if the coal produced a clinker. At the distribution point in Laredo, the coal sold for $3.25 per ton by the railcar load and for $4.25 per ton retail. The coal was sent into central and eastern Mexico over the Mexican National Railway and as far as 300 miles into north Texas. The railroads were also large users of the coal.8 Page 5 of 17

In August of 1896, the Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company was at the cusp of opening mines Numbers 6, 7, 8 and 9 at Minera. Output was projected to increase at a fast pace. The president of the Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation Company was William Anderson, and the opening of the new mines was led by David Tod Roy (July 31, 1868 – Feb. 1904), son of Andrew Roy (July 19, 1834 – Oct. 19, 1914), former state geologist of Ohio, with consulting superintendent and engineer Robert Mauchline, former mine inspector of the state of Pennsylvania. Mexico was developing, and its demand for coal was increasing. The Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation was projecting its output to increase to 3,000 tons per month after April of 1897 and as much as 600 tons per day by August of 1897.9

The June 10, 1896 issue of The Coal Trade Journal reported that a fire in one of the Laredo, Texas mines caused much damage.10 The Southern News Notes in the Coal Trade Journal issue of July 15, 1896 reported that 350 miners went on strike at Minera, Texas due to a reduction in mining rates.11 Operations resumed at the Minera mine near Laredo at a reduced wage rate per the July 22, 1896 issue of the Coal Trade Journal.12

David Tod Roy was a young mining engineer from Ohio. He arrived at Minera in the summer of 1895 and was contracted to be superintendent of mines at Minera.13Clovis Perone was the operator of the general store at that time. David Tod Roy’s house, which he liked from the first day, was made of stone and sat on a hill overlooking the Rio Grande.14 He was the boss, Justice of the Peace, arbiter, referee, and father confessor, quickly learned Spanish and the names of all the miners and their families. His wife soon came to Minera from Ohio to join him, and she was instrumental in establishing a school for the children of the miners.15

By then there were at least 200 miners that were eligible to vote, and the train started making a special run on Election Day to take the miners to go vote in Laredo. The miners collaborated with each other Page 6 of 17

(and their bosses) and went armed with a list of candidates they were going to vote for.16 That was the beginning of a tradition of political activism for the people of the Las Minas region that has subsequently been passed down from generation to generation, a tradition that outlived the existence of Las Minas.

Once David Tod Roy saw that life at Minera was calm and orderly and that the coal business was good, he sent for his younger brother, Wil Roy, to assist him as mine foreman. Although the Roy family assessed Las Minas as calm and orderly, the miners and their families were very spirited and festive. The miners were paid on Saturday afternoons at the general store and “bailes” were also held at the school house on Saturdays which generally ended in brawls. Cock fights were held on Sundays.17

The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) sponsored two reconnaissance trips to Las Minas, one in 1895 and the other in 1898 by USGS staff. The 1898 site visit included University of Texas personnel as well. The Santo Tomas Coal Field and the Rio Grande Region was of national economic interest as a source of coal to meet the demands of railroads and manufacturing.18 The Rio Grande Plain generally dips to the southeast. However, the Santo Tomas Coal Field is an exception; it dips to the northeast. This distinction of the Santo Tomas Coal Field is attributed to the uplift of the Sierra Santa Rosa in Mexico.19 Rio Grande Coal and Irrigation was operating a mine on a slope (tunnel, drift mine with horizontal access) located in the village (“Santo Tomas” which was actually Minera) at the time with an output of 90 to 100 tons daily and most was sold to the International and Great Northern Railroad. The Cannel Coal Company had completed a shaft (vertical access to a mine) 3 miles southeast of the village (at Cannel/Darwin) in 1895 but was not in production yet.20

David Darwin Davis (1852 – 1933) was a longtime Superintendent for the Cannel Coal Company and a longtime elected Webb County Commissioner. He was born in Wales in 1852. In 1872 he came to the Page 7 of 17

United States. He first traveled through Pennsylvania then in the Akron, Ohio vicinity followed by a few years in Cuyahoga Falls. Around 1880 he set out west to Colorado and New Mexico Territories and northwestern Texas prospecting for coal for eastern capitalists. He made his way to the area in early 1882 between Eagle Pass and Laredo, Texas. In 1882, coal from the Santo Tomas Coal field was hauled to Laredo in wagons and barges until the railroad connecting Laredo to the coal field was completed. David Darwin Davis was first elected Webb County Commissioner in 1898. His headquarters were at Cannel (Darwin). The Cannel (Darwin) and San Jose (Dolores) mines were owned and operated by the Cannel Coal Company. C. B. Wright of Philadelphia was president of the company. By 1907 they had 500 employees and had 250 to 500 tons of coal per day production. Ruben W. Davis, son of David Darwin Davis, was a mining engineer for the Cannel Coal Company as well as engineer for the Rio Grande and Eagle Pass Railroad. Three other sons of David Darwin Davis were also employed by the Cannel Coal Company.21

By the early 1900s both immigrant Mexican labor and their families as well as a new generation of Texas-born miners and families were adjusting their way of life, but also holding on to customs of old, as well as embracing the new. The largest rural school in the Webb County school system was located in Minera; 129 students were enrolled there.22 The miners of Las Minas were organized labor, and from mid-1906 to mid-1907 they were organized under the American Federation of Labor’s (AFL) Federal Labor Union No. 12, 340. Later, sometime between 1907 and 1912, three separate Locals were organized at Las Minas under the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) Locals 2535, 2623, and 2625.23

A yellow fever epidemic broke out at Minera in 1900 and took many lives, including that of David Tod Roy. After the yellow fever epidemic, Wil Roy took over the mining operations.24 Page 8 of 17

The general store at Minera was well stocked with arms and ammunition. One November evening in 1910, a man of short stature who spoke good English and believed to be Francisco Madero (Oct. 30, 1873 – Feb. 22, 1913) bought 240 Texas 30-30 Winchesters and ammunition. Later that month Francisco Madero led revolutionary efforts in northeastern Mexico. Julian Alexander was constable at Minera around that time. 25 Later, during the U.S. Mexican Border crisis of 1916-1917, the First New Hampshire Infantry was on duty in the Las Minas region when the likes of Pancho Villa (June 5, 1878 – July 20, 1923) took to crossing the border during Mexico’s civil struggles.26

The mines at Minera were flooded when the river flood stage rose in 1912. Shaft mines prevailed upland, growing the towns of Santo Tomas and Dolores (San Jose).27 The shaft mine at the town of Santo Tomas was opened to the Santo Tomas coal bed between 1910 and 1912.28

By June 20, 1913, Dolores had a Post Office; and in June of 1915, the Darwin Post Office was closed. The move of the Minera Post Office to Santo Tomas followed in August of 1915, only to be closed in November of 1918.29 In 1917, Coal Age was reporting increased competition from natural gas and fuel oil.30

As technology in the mining industry advanced, it was implemented in Las Minas. The shaft mines of Las Minas utilized tipples (wooden or metal buildings outside the mine). In 1916, Andrews Allen described that coal preparation consisted of both cleaning and sizing. The cleaning took place at both inside the mine and at the tipple. Sizing involved proper selection of screening equipment in order to properly size the coal for market.31 Within the tipples were hoppers, picking tables for manual sorting of impurities, bar screen, and spiral unloading chute (into rail cars).32

Around 1918 there were three mines in operation in Las Minas, the Santo Tomas of the Santo Tomas Coal Company, and the Darwin and Dolores mines of the Cannel Coal Company. The mines were in Page 9 of 17

towns bearing the names of the mines which were connected by the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway. There were two principal beds of cannel coal separated by about 90 feet in depth. The upper bed was the Santo Tomas formation (24 to 34 inches thick) and the lower bed was the San Pedro formation (22 to 24 inches thick) at Dolores, thinner or absent at Santo Tomas and 4 feet thick at the mouth of Llave Creek.33

Santo Tomas coal was being bought by the government to use at Fort MacIntosh in Laredo, also by at least 7 railroads including the Artesian Belt; San Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf; Rio Grande & Eagle Pass; International & Great Northern; Abilene & Southern; Coahulia and Zacatecas; and Mexican Government lines. The Santo Tomas Coal Field cannel coal was being shipped as domestic fuel to Austin, San Antonio, Corpus Christi, and other places. It was also the principal steam coal in the surrounding region of Las Minas and Laredo.34

In the late 1910s the Santo Tomas Coal Field was considered to be one of the largest, if not the largest, bodies of cannel coal of bituminous rank in the United States and drew economic and geologic interest. In addition to being used by the entities already mentioned, the coal also had a growing use as a household fuel and in manufacturing plants. Before the Mexican Revolution (1910), many Mexican industries in the territories that used Laredo as a gateway used it too.35

The San Pedro bed is more cannel-like than the Santo Tomas bed, and its coal was a bit better for household use. The Santo Tomas coal bed out crops could be seen on the river banks (bluffs) 50 to 70 feet above low water (during1918) northwest of Espadilla Creek and other areas between Dolores and Artillero Creek.36

The USGS Bulletin 691 of 1918 included a sketch map detailing the productive portion of the Santo Tomas Coal Field. The major landmark on the southern boundary on the map was Pinto Valle Creek and Page 10 of 17

the major landmark of the northern boundary was Artillero Creek. It showed the alignment, stations, and spurs of the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway, as well as the location of the towns and mines (active and inactive). The most southern station of the productive area was the Dolores Station located about 2.1 miles northwest of Pinto Valle Creek. About 1.6 miles northwest of the Dolores Station was the Darwin Station. A major landmark situated approximately equidistance between the Dolores and Darwin Stations was Bridge 37. Both the Dolores and the Darwin Stations were south of Santo Tomas Creek. The Minera Station was north of the Santo Tomas Creek approximately 1.6 miles northwest of the Darwin Station. An additional line of railroad tracks of about 1.6 miles in length were shown going from the Minera Station north to the Town of Santo Tomas, staying on the east side of Espadilla Creek, although it did not indicate a station at Santo Tomas.

The Town of Dolores was about 0.45 miles southeast of the Dolores Station and a shaft mine was located there as well; 0.6 miles to the north of there was the other Dolores shaft mine. Approximately 0.2 miles to the north of the Dolores Station was the San Jose mine. The Town of Darwin and the Darwin shaft mine was half a mile northeast of the Darwin Station. The Hart (Hunt) mine was around 0.4 mile to the southeast of the Darwin Station. There were 13 drift mines in the vicinity of the Minera Station. Two were on the north side of Espadilla Creek while the rest were south of Espadilla Creek but north of Santo Tomas Creek. A shaft mine was shown at the Town of Santo Tomas.37

The drift mines in the vicinity of the Minera, northwest and southeast of Minera Station, were collectively referred to as the old Santo Tomas mine.38 The initial mines that were started in 1881 were among these and the ones located northwest of Espadilla Creek. Later, the shaft mines were worked utilizing the room and pillar method. The Darwin shaft mine was opened in 1895. By 1918 it was expected that the Darwin and Dolores shaft mines would be connected underground.39 Page 11 of 17

In 1917, P.L. Mathews was the superintendent for the Santo Tomas mine at the town of Santo Tomas. P. L. Mathews lamented the impact on labor availability due to the U.S. entry into World War I. He understood that Mexican labor in the coal mines was a solution to the labor shortages caused by the war, but he struggled to understand Mexican labor and their customs they had brought to Santo Tomas. However, in his opinion he thought the Mexican coal miner could be able and efficient, provided their supervisor understood their virtues and weaknesses.40

In 1918 the Santo Tomas shaft mine, in the town of Santo Tomas, caught fire and ceased operating. In 1921, the Darwin mines were abandoned.41

After the end of World War I, the demand for coal went into decline. By 1928, Las Minas (Webb County Justice Precinct 2) had 5.7% (or 2,685) of Webb County’s population42 and only 3.1% of the County’s purchasing power.43 Farming in Webb County fell with the rise of coal mining but rebounded when coal mining declined. The number of farms in Webb County went from 408 in 1900 to 337 in 1910 to 257 in 1920 and back to 308 in 1925.44

Although Las Minas had a school for the children, the facilities were not comparable to those in Laredo. In 1928, there were 11 schools within the City of Laredo and 24 in the rest of Webb County; however, the aggregate value of the schools in Laredo was $1,000,000 whereas the aggregate value for those in the rest of Webb County was only $13,320.45

By the mid-1920s there were only two mines in operation in the Santo Tomas Coal Field. They were Mine No.4 in Minera and a shaft mine in Dolores.46

Baseball was played in Las Minas. Two teams were fielded, one of which was the Cannel Coal Company Team (CCC Team). Teams from Laredo came in to play them. At times, the CCC Team traveled to Asherton, Carrizo Springs, Crystal City, Laredo, and Uvalde to play there. The CCC Team Page 12 of 17

was composed of teenagers and young men. Idelfonso Cardenas (May 13, 1913- December 25, 1997) described the school at Las Minas as large and having several rooms. Grades first through seventh were taught there. The school also had a carpentry class, play grounds with swings, slides and other equipment. Baseball gear was also available during recess.47

With the commencement of the Social Security program around 1936, applications had to be filled out for the Cannel Coal Company, which at the time still had about 350 employees.48

The Dolores mine was the last one to close in 1939. The oil and gas competition had finally brought the Santo Tomas Coal Field production to an end.49

By the late 1930s, Los Matachines de la Santa Cruz (a religious dance troupe) had moved to Laredo from the mining towns of Las Minas. The tradition was brought to Las Minas from immigrants from Real Catorce in the San Luis Potosi region of Mexico. The matachines’ dance costume consisted of a head piece, vest and naguilla (skirt).50 The ritual dances of the matachines were part of folk Catholicism, a resistance against the organized or formal church structures, and were influenced by Spanish and Coahuiltecan rituals. The matachines’ ritual performances were centered on the feast of the Holy Cross (El Dia de la Santa Cruz) that is observed every May 3rd. Pastorelas, traditional shepherd’s plays performed during Christmas time and the Day of the Epiphany (January 6), were also performed by the same matachines.51

About June 30, 1946 the last of the Las Minas Post Offices, Dolores, was closed.52 At Minera the miners lived in adobe and grass brick houses (as opposed to the wooden homes in Darwin, Dolores, and Santo Tomas), which by 1945 had completely crumbled and the superintendent’s former stone house was infested with bats and abandoned.53 Today, located on private property but visible from public right-of-way, the hills of spoils from the mining operations remain in the vicinity of the old Dolores town site Page 13 of 17

within Dolores Ranch on the west side of FM 1472 a few miles south of Spur 255; in the area where the former Darwin town site was located on the south side of Spur 255 between FM 1472 and the Colombia-Solidarity International Bridge; and at the former Santo Tomas town site a short distance north of Spur 255 on the east side of FM 1472.

III. Historical/Cultural Significance

The Santo Tomas Coal Field’s capacity to produce coal as an energy source had a direct impact on the ability of the City of Laredo to sustain dynamic growth spurts from the 1880s to the 1930s, including a 221.50% growth between 1880 and 1890 as Laredo’s population exploded from 3,521 to 11,319.54 This coal field also significantly supported the industrialization of northeastern Mexico during the latter part of the 19th Century.

This historic coal play caused an influx of Mexican labor, capitalism from the northeastern United States, as well as engineering and technical might from the Midwest. The region was a crossroads of cultures, each assimilating to some degree with the others. Political activism and participation, labor organization, education, bilingualism, technical prowess, sportsmanship, and performing arts were among the mix of the cultural diversification.

In 1946, author Janet Roy predicted that in one generation there would be no witness remaining to “the gaiety and excitement that once was Minera, Texas.”55 However, her prediction was dispelled by those who had a hand in operating the mines, had lived at Las Minas and who passed down to their descendants the vivid stories, pictures, and customs from that historically rich and colorful era from the 1880s to the 1930s; among them were, Idelfonso Cardenas (1913-1997)56, Pedro Avila (1868 or 1869-1

Page 1 of 10

Coal Mining in Las Minas, Santo Tomas Coal Field, 1880s to 1930s

October 19, 2013

Compiled by Alex Martinez

Sketch Map
Old Santo Tomas Drift (horizontal access) Mine at Minera Circa 1890 "Coal mine and loading chute, Minera, Webb County, Texas, ca. 1890." General Photograph Collection, MS 362, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections from the Institute of Texan Cultures
From: George H. Ashley, Cannel Coal in the United States, USGS Bulletin 691, 1918 Page 2 of 10
Darwin Mine Spoils, 2013 Old Santo Tomas Drift (horizontal access) Mine at Minera Circa 1890
Las Minas General Store Circa 1914 From: George H. Ashley, Cannel Coal in the United States, USGS Bulletin 691, 1918

Post Office Map Circa 1907


Darwin Mine Spoils, 2013 Page 4 of 10

From: George H. Ashley, Cannel Coal in the United States, USGS Bulletin 691, 1918

Dolores Mine Spoils, 2013 Page 5 of 10

Las Minas General Store Circa 1914

From the collection of Enrique Valdez

Post Office Map Circa 1907

From Page 6 of 10

Darwin and Dolores Postmark

Minera and Santo Tomas Postmark

From: John Germann, Texas Postal Historical Society

From: John Germann, Texas Postal Historical Society Page 8 of 10

Railroad Map Circa 1920 From
Las Minas Shaft (vertical access) Mine Circa 1908 From the collection of Enrique Valdez Page 9 of 10
Santo Tomas Mine Spoils, 2013 Dolores Circa 1910 From the collection of Enrique Valdez Page 10 of 10 Los Matachines Circa 1940
From the collection of Enrique Valdez Las Minas Circa 1915
From the collection of Enrique Valdez

930)57, Benito Castro (1897-1947)58, David Darwin Davis (1852-1933)59, Enrique Valdez (1895-1987)60, and many others. Page 14 of 17

1 Federal Reporter, Volume 154, Aug.22-Oct. 3, 1907, p.218 – p.221

2 Thomas J. Evans, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Handbook 4, Bituminous Coal in Texas, 1974. p.17

3 Southwestern Reporter Volune 27, July16-Novemebr 19, 1894, p.788

4 Federal Reporter Volume 154 Aug 22 – Oct 3, 1907, p.227

5 ibid. p.220-p.221

6 John Germann, Texas Postal History Society, Electronic Communication, Sept. 2, 2013

7 Coal Trade Journal, March 25, 1896, p.178

8 ibid. p.185

9 ibid.

10 Coal Trade Journal, June 10, 1896, p.343

11 Coal Trade Journal, July 15, 1896, p.4107

12 Coal Trade Journal, July 22, 1896, p.425

13 Janet Roy, The Life and Times of Minera, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Vol. 49 No.4 April 1946) p.510

14 ibid. p.511

15 ibid. p.512

16 ibid. p.514

17 ibid. p.513-p515

18 Tomas Wayland Vaughan, Reconnaissance In The Rio Grande Coal Fields of Texas, USGS Bulletin 164, 1900, p.11

19 ibid. p.13-p.14

IV. Documentation

Endnotes Page 15 of 17

20 ibid. p.63

21 A Twentieth Century History of Southwest Texas, Vol. II (The Lewis Publishing company. 1907), p.117-p.118

22 Roberto Calderon, Mexican Coal Mining Labor in Texas and Coahuila, 1880-1930 (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2000), p.260

23 ibid. p.264

24 Roy, p.515

25 Roy, p.515-516

26 Charles F. Bowen Letters to Enrique Valdez, June 1, 1964, March 11, 1965, May 15, 1965

27 Roy, p.517

28 Robert W. Hook and Peter D. Warwick, The San Pedro and Santo Tomas Coal Beds (Claiborne Group, Eocene) of Webb County, Texas, USGS Open File Report 99-301 Chapter 2,1999, p.17

29 Germann

30 Coal Age, Jan. 13, 1917, p.61

31 Coal Age, July 1, 1916, p.9

32 ibid. p.4

33 George H. Ashley, Cannel Coal in the United States, USGS Bulletin 659, 1918, p.121

34 ibid. p.122

35 George H. Ashley, Santo Tomas Cannel Coal, Webb County, Texas ,USGS Bulletin 691-I, Contributions To The Economic Geology, 1918, Part II, p.251-p.252

36 ibid. p.266

37 ibid. Plate XXIX

38 ibid. p.267

39 ibid. p.269

40 Coal Age, August 25, 1917, p.312 Page 16 of 17

41 Hook and Warwick, p.17

42 Burt C. Blanton, Industrial and Economic Survey of the City of Laredo and Webb County, Texas, 1928, p.26-p.27

43 ibid. p.66-p.67

44 ibid. p.91

45 ibid. p.58

46 Evans, p.17

47 Idelfonso Cardenas, The Life of A Miner, undated, p.8

48 ibid. p.10

49 Evans, p.17

50 Norma Cantu, Costume as Cultural Resistance and Affirmation The Case of South Texas, Hecho En Tejas: Texas-Mexican Folk Art and Crafts (Texas Folklore Society,1991), p.118

51 Norma Cantu, Dos Mundos [Two Worlds]: Two Celebrations in Laredo, Texas, Global Mexican Cultural Productions, 2011, p.64-p.65

52 Germann

53 Roy, p.517

54 The Eighteenth Decennial Census Of The United States, Census Of Population, 1960, Vol. I, Part 45, Texas

55 Roy, p.517

56 Cardenas, p.6

57 Rudy Saucedo, The Coal Miners of South Texas, undated

58 Josefina Castro Oviedo, Oral Communication, October 5, 2013

59 Patricia Hopson Kahn, Electronic Communication, October 8, 2013

60 Bowen Letters Page 17 of 17

Other Sources

Eleventh Census 1890, Population of the United States

The Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives, Compendium of the Eleventh Census, Part I, Washington, 1894

Twelfth Census of the United States Taken in the year 1900, Population Part I

Thirteenth Census of the United States 1910, Population by counties and Minor Civil Divisions 1910, 1900, 1890

Fourteenth Census of the United States 1920, Number and Distribution of Population

Fifteen Census of the United States: 1930, Population Volume III, Part 2

The New York Times, Ask Where Coal Went, Coal Points to Record Tonnage Mined in 1917, January 21, 1918

Tomas C. Kelly, An Archaeological Reconnaissance Of The Palafox Mining Area, Webb County, Southern Texas, Center for Archaeological Research, UTSA, Archaeological Survey Report, No. 71, 1979

Jerry Thompson, Laredo A Pictorial History, The Downimg Company/ Publishers, 1986

Jerry Thompson, A Brief History of Darwin, Texas, Villa San Agustin De Laredo Genealogical Society, Journal VI, 2004

Environmental Assessment, Colombia-Solidarity International Bridge Border Safety Inspection Facility (BSIF), TXDOT, 2008

John A. Adams, Jr., Conflict & Commerce On The Rio Grande, Laredo, 1755-1955, College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2008

Loni Tyson, Coal Mined in Webb County, The Laredo News, May 28, 1978